Vague Authority: Using a group of people as an authority without referencing a specific person
Ex. Lawyers say that people fines should be stiffer for missed court dates.
Past Authority: Using a person from the past as an authority, even if an authority on the subject it is not relevant to our time period
Ex. Our forefathers supported the idea that every town have their own stocks.
Irrelevant Authority: Using a person who is not an expert in the field as an authority on a topic
Ex. The kid next door said we should not have to do homework.
Name Calling: Attacking a person’s character or personality instead of focusing on his or her ideas
Ex. Del is rude so you can not believe what he says about taxes.
Snob Appeal: Tells a person that if they agree with the opinion that they are more intelligent, better people, or above others who disagree
Ex. All intelligent people agree that TV rots your brain.
Bandwagon Appeal: Tries to convince a person that everyone else is doing it, so should they.
Ex. More Toyotas were purchased last year than Fords. Go buy a Toyota.